Mesa Phil 102B: Exam 1 Study Guide

Part I: Fill in the blank. You should know the definitions of the following words. A word bank will be provided.
  • Philosophy
  • Epistemology
  • Ontology
  • Axiology
  • Descriptive Ethics
  • Normative Ethics
  • Metaethics
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Individual Ethical Relativism
  • Euthyphro Dilemma
  • Cultural Ethical Relativism
  • Psychological Egoism
  • Ethical Egoism
Part II: Short Answer. You should be able to explain the following concepts.
  • The three factors that characterize philosophical reasoning about ethics.
  • The three reasons given by Socrates in the "Crito" for not breaking the law.
  • The three kinds of moral reasoning.
  • The difference, according to Martin Luther King Jr., between a just and unjust law.
  • How MLK Jr. distinguishes breaking the law from civil disobedience.
  • Why Socrates thinks it is wrong to fear death.
  • Define Individual Ethical relativism and articulate the two reasons for rejecting it.
  • Articulate the Euthyphro Dilemma and the resolution of it.
  • Articulate the three reasons why one cannot rely on God as a moral authority. 
  • Explain Cultural Ethical Relativism and the Cultural Differences Argument.
  • Explain the problem with the Cultural Differences Argument.
  • Articulate the odd consequences that follow from endorsing Cultural Ethical Relativism.
  • The story of the Ring of Gyges.
  • Articulate the difference between Psychological and Ethical Egoism.
  • The arguments in favor of Psychological Egoism and Rachels' response.
  • The three confusions that give rise to Psychological Egoism.
  • Rachels' criticism of Ethical Egoism.
  • The two sorts of disagreements we can have.
  • The proper relation of science to morality.
Part III: Essay. You should be prepared to write a short essay in which you discuss your views on the proper relation between happiness and morality. In particular, you should be prepared to answer whether or not you think moral action leads to happiness, and which you think is better: being moral and unhappy or being immoral and happy.