Phil 102A S11: Study Guide for Exam 1

Part I: You should know the definitions of the following words for fill in the blank questions:
  • Philosophy
  • Ontology
  • Metaphysics
  • Epistemology
  • Axiology
  • Empiricism
  • Tabula rasa
  • a posteriori
  • Rationalism
  • Innate ideas
  • a priori
  • Common-Sense Skepticism
  • Methodical Skepticism
  • Absolute Skepticism
  • Cartesian Dualism
  • Impressions
  • Ideas
  • Relations of Ideas
  • Matters of Fact
Part II: You should also be able to provide the following information:
  • Explain Al-Ghazali's criteria for knowledge.
  • Explain the two sources of knowledge Al-Ghazali initially considers and his reason for rejecting them.
  • Explain the three steps of Mysticism Al-Ghazali articulates.
  • Articulate the hierarchy of belief Al-Ghazali articulates as well as the way he uses this hierarchy to counter the claim that mystics are ridiculous or mistaken.
  • Explain the three forms of doubt Descartes considers as well as which beliefs each form of doubt calls into question and what beliefs remain.
  • Explain Descartes' Cogito argument.
  • Explain Cartesian Dualism and explain how this supports Descartes' rationalism.
  • Explain what it means for Descartes to be a thinking thing and what an extended substance is.
  • Explain Hume's distinction between an idea and an impression and how we tell them apart.
  • Describe the four faculties of the mind that Hume argues give rise to all ideas.
  • Articulate the two arguments Hume gives in support of the claim that all ideas are derived from impressions.
  • Explain Hume's account of where our knowledge about matters of fact and causality come from.
  • Explain Hume's account of the Problem of Induction
Part III: You should be able to articulate the epistemological position of 12 Angry Men and compare it to the other authors we have studied.