Phil 102B S11: Study Guide for Exam 1

Part I: For the exam you should be able to perform the following tasks:
  • Explain Aquinas' supreme moral principle.
  • Explain the three natural inclinations Aquinas uses to derive moral principles, and for each inclination, articulate one specific moral obligation derived from it.
  • Explain and provide examples of the naturalistic fallacy.
  • Explain where Hume thinks moral judgments come from.
  • Explain Individual Ethical Relativism and three objections to it discussed in class.
  • Explain Cultural Ethical Relativism and three objections to it discussed in class.
  • Define Consequentalism.
  • Define Utilitarianism.
  • Explain Mill's Greatest Happiness Principle.
  • Explain the two additional principles Mill articulates (Principle of Universality and Principle of Impartiality)
  • Explain the difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism
  • Define the Good Will for Kant.
  • Describe the four character types Kant considers, and explain which one he thinks is the most moral.
  • Explain the difference between a Hypothetical and a Categorical Imperative.
  • Describe the Formula of Universal Law and the Formula of Humanity and explain how Kant uses each of these formulas to show that it is wrong to make a lying promise.
  • Define the "Highest Good" for Aristotle.
  • Define "Function," "Virtue," and "Vice."
  • Define Aristotle's conception of the function of human beings.
  • Explain a moral virtue (including the three parts) and give an example.
Part II: In addition, you should be prepared to write an essay in which you compare and contrast the views of two of our authors on a specific moral issue.