Phil 205 S14: Exam 1 Study Guide

General Instructions: For the exam you will only need a writing implement (pen or pencil is fine).

Part I: Fill-in-the-blank questionsYou should know the definitions of the following words. A word bank will be provided on the exam.
  • Philosophy
  • Logic
  • Epistemology
  • Metaphysics
  • Axiology
  • Critical Thinking
  • Statement
  • Argument
  • Premise
  • Conclusion
  • Deductive 
  • Inductive
  • Valid
  • Invalid
  • Sound
  • Not Sound
  • Strong
  • Weak
  • Cogent
  • Not Cogent
  • Conditional
  • Antecedent 
  • Consequent
  • Disjunction
  • Disjunct
  • Conservatism
  • Simplicity
  • Fallacy
  • Formal Fallacy
  • Informal Fallacy
Part II: Short Answer Questions. You should be prepared to explain the following concepts.
  • The four branches of philosophy and some of the questions we ask in each branch.
  • The difference between a paraphrase and a summary.
  • The three things Supreme Court Justices rely on in determining the intentions of the authors of the Constitution and its Amendments.
Part III: Arguments. You should be able to perform the following skills:
  • Identify and describe the four valid argument forms we discussed (Modus Ponens, Modus Tollens, Hypothetical Syllogism, Disjunctive Syllogism).
  • Identify and describe the two invalid argument forms we discussed (Denying the Antecedent, Affirming the Consequent).
  • Identify and explain the three common types of inductive arguments we discussed (Enumerative Induction, Analogical Induction, Inference to the Best Explanation) and some of the issue we must be sensitive to in evaluating the strength or weakness of each of them.
Part IV: Fallacies. You should be able to recognize and define the following fallacies (a list of the names of the fallacies will be provided):
  • Straw Man
  • Ad hominem
  • Ad populum
  • Appeal to Tradition
  • Genetic Fallacy
  • Equivocation
  • Amphiboly
  • Appeal to Ignorance
  • False Dilemma
  • Circular Argument
  • Hasty Generalization
  • Slippery Slope
  • Post hoc
  • Composition
  • Division

Fallacy Practice From Class:

1)    All of us cannot be famous because all of us cannot be well known.
2)    …since it is impossible for an animal or plant to be indefinitely big or small, neither can its parts be such, or the whole will be the same thing.
3)    My fellow Americans...there has been some talk that the government is overstepping its bounds by allowing police to enter peoples' homes without the warrants traditionally required by the Constitution. However, these are dangerous times and dangerous times require appropriate actions. I have in my office thousands of letters from people who let me know, in no uncertain terms, that they heartily endorse the war against crime in these United States. Because of this overwhelming approval, it is evident that the police are doing the right thing.
4)    A Worm-eating Warbler was discovered by Hazel Miller in Concord, while walking along the branch of a tree, singing, and in good view.
     That’s our Hazel—surefooted, happy, and with just a touch of the exhibitionist.
5)    …each person’s happiness is a good to that person, and the general happiness, therefore, a good to the aggregate of all persons.
6)     If you want a life full of sexual pleasure, don’t graduate from college. A study to be published next month in American Demographics magazine shows that people with the most education have the least amount of sex.
7)    If science wishes to argue that we cannot know what was going on in [the gorilla] Binti’s head when she acted as she did, science must also acknowledge that it cannot prove that nothing was going on. It is because of our irresolvable ignorance, as much as fellow-feeling, that we should give animals the benefit of the doubt and treat them with the respect we accord ourselves.
8)    You know why you think that? Because you are an idiot!
9)    Sam is riding her bike in her hometown in Maine, minding her own business. A station wagon comes up behind her and the driver starts beeping his horn and then tries to force her off the road. As he goes by, the driver yells "get on the sidewalk where you belong!" Sam sees that the car has Ohio plates and concludes that all Ohio drivers are jerks.