Phil 100 S19 (TTH): Exam 2 Study Guide

For this exam you may bring in one regular sized sheet of paper with notes on one side. You will turn in your note sheet when you turn in the exam. 

Part I: Fill in the Blank. You should know the definitions of the following terms:
  • Conjunction
  • Conjunct
  • Disjunction
  • Disjunct
  • Negation
  • Conditional
  • Antecedent
  • Consequent
  • Inclusive sense of 'or'
  • Exclusive sense of 'or'
  • Necessary Condition
  • Sufficient Condition
  • Tautology
  • Contradiction
  • Contingent Statement
  • Fallacy
  • Formal Fallacy
  • Informal Fallacy
  • Cognitive Bias
  • Heuristic
  • Anomaly

Part II: Logic
. You should be able to do the following:
  • Identify and explain the three common types of inductive arguments we discussed (Enumerative Induction, Analogical Induction, Inference to the Best Explanation) and some of the issue we must be sensitive to in evaluating the strength or weakness of each of them.
  • Know the truth tables for the four logical connectives we studied in class:
    1. Negation (~)
    2. Conjunction  (•)
    3. Disjunction (∨)
    4. Conditional  (⊃)
  • Determine the truth or falsity of a proposition when given the truth values of the component propositions.
  • Use a truth table to determine the validity or invalidity of an argument.
Part III: Fallacies. You should be able to identify and explain the following fallacies:
  • Affirming the Consequent
  • Denying the Antecedent
  • Non Sequitur
  • Argument from Authority
  • Ad Populum
  • Appeal to Tradition
  • Argument from Final Outcome
  • Post Hoc
  • Ad Hoc
  • Tu Quoque
  • Ad Hominem
  • Appeal to Ignorance
  • False Continuum
  • False Dilemma
  • False Analogy
  • Genetic Fallacy
  • Naturalistic Fallacy
  • Nirvana Fallacy
  • No True Scotsman Fallacy
  • Slippery Slope
  • Straw Man
  • Circular Argument
  • Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy
  • Moving the Goalposts
  • Fallacy Fallacy
Part IV: Short Answer. You should be able to explain the following concepts and their significance for critical thinking:
  • The difference between cold and hot reading, as well as some of the techniques used by cold and hot readers.
  • The Dunning-Kruger Effect
  • Motivated Reasoning
  • Cognitive Dissonance
  • Some the major Cognitive Biases discussed in class 
  • Some of the major Heuristics discussed in class
  • Gambler's Fallacy
  • Confirmation Bias
  • Appeal to Antiquity
  • Appeal to Nature
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
  • Anomaly Hunting
  • Lottery Fallacy
  • Data Mining
  • Coincidence