Phil 102B S19: Exam 1 Study Guide

Part I: Fill in the blank. You should know the definitions of the following words. A word bank will be provided.
  • Philosophy
  • Epistemology
  • Metaphysics
  • Axiology
  • Ethical Theory
  • Good Will
  • Hypothetical Imperative
  • Categorical Imperative
  • Formula of Universal Law
  • Formula of Humanity
  • Maxim
  • Consequentialism
  • Utilitarianism
  • Hedonistic Ethics
  • Greatest Happiness Principle
  • Principle of Impartiality
  • Principle of Universality
  • Act Utilitarianism
  • Rule Utilitarianism
  • Highest Good
Part II: Short Answer. You should be able to explain the following concepts.
  • The four character types articulated by Kant and which of them he thinks is the most moral and why.
  • Kant's Formula of Universal Law and how he uses it to argue that it is wrong to make a lying promise.
  • Kant's Formula of Humanity and how he uses it to argue that it is wrong to make a lying promise.
  • Mill's Greatest Happiness Principle and the Principles of Universality and Impartiality.
  • Mill's conception of happiness.
  • The difference between Act and Rule Utilitarianism. 
  • Two objections to Utilitarianism and Mill's response.
  • The four candidates for the highest good that Aristotle considers and his reason for rejecting each of them.
  • Aristotle's conceptions of a function, virtue, and vice as well as an example to illustrate them.
  • Aristotle's conception of the function of a human being as well as the highest good associated with this function.
  • Aristotle's account of a moral virtue as well as an example to illustrate it.
  • The two features of every Social Contract Theory
  • Hobbes' conception of life in the State of Nature.
  • The three sources of conflict discussed by Hobbes.
  • Hobbes' conception of the Right of Nature and the two other associated Laws of Nature.
  • Hobbes' account of how we can escape the state of nature.
  • Rawls' conception of the original situation behind a veil of ignorance.
  • The two principles Rawls argues we would agree to from the original situation.
  • Some of the major difference and similarities between Hobbes' and Rawls' social contract theories.
  • Some of the defining features of an Ethic of Care. 
Part III: Essay. You should be prepared to write a short essay in which you compare the film Crimes and Misdemeanors to two of the authors we studied this unit. In particular, you should pick one character from the film and analyze that character's actions in the film from the perspective of two different moral theories that we discussed this unit.