Phil 104B S20: Exam 1 Study Guide

For the exam you will just need to bring something to write with. 

Part I: Fill-in-the-blank. You should know the definitions of the following terms:
  • Philosophy
  • Logic
  • Epistemology
  • Metaphysics
  • Axiology
  • Empiricism
  • tabula rasa
  • a posteriori
  • Rationalism
  • Innate Ideas
  • a priori
  • Skepticism
  • Materialism
  • Idealism
  • Dualism
  • Monism
  • Pluralism
  • Determinism
  • Free Will
  • Compatibilism
  • Incompatibilism
  • Libertarianism
  • Hard Determinism
  • Labor Theory of Value
  • Analytic Statement
  • Synthetic Statement
Part II: Short Answer. You should be able to explain the following concepts and ideas:
  • The three forms of doubt that Descartes considers. For each you should explain the nature of the doubt, which beliefs that form of doubt calls into question, and which beliefs survive that form of doubt
  • Descartes' Cogito Argument
  • Descartes account of thinking things and extended substance
  • Descartes' distinction between Formal and Subjective Reality
  • Descartes' argument for the existence of God
  • The Cartesian Circle
  • The main features of Hobbes' account of Human Nature
  • The two features of every social contract theory
  • Hobbes' account of life in the state of nature
  • Hobbes' explanation of how we escape the state of nature and form a civilization. Including his discussion of the Right of Nature and the two Laws of Nature
  • Locke's account of the three functions of the state
  • Locke's distinction between Primary and Secondary Qualities
  • Locke's argument for indirect realism
  • The two sorts of ideas Berkeley considers
  • Berkeley's Inconceivability Argument for Subjective Idealism
  • The meaning of Berkeley's claim that "esse is percipi"
  • Berkeley's explanation for how objects can exist independently of our perception of them
  • The two types of "perceptions of the mind" discussed by Hume and the difference between them 
  • Hume's two arguments for the claim that all ideas can be traced back to some original impression or set of impressions 
  • The difference between Hume's account of Relations of Ideas and Matters of Fact
  • Hume's account of the problem with causality and the source for our idea of causality
  • Hume's account of the source of our moral judgments
Part III: Essay. You should be prepared to write a short essay in which you use two of the philosophers we have studied this unit to explain the difference between rationalism and empiricism. Furthermore, you should explain which of these two positions you like the best and why.